Infertility in women is frequently blamed for involuntary childlessness. In actuality, this only accounts for around a third of all non-pregnancy instances. Female sterility can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics or illness. Learn more about the causes of female infertility and how to overcome them.
Infertility in Women: What Causes It?
There are gender-specific reasons for infertility in women, in addition to variables that increase sterility equally in both sexes (e.g., obesity, nicotine, narcotics, alcohol, or stress).
Age can affect your fertility
Couples are delaying having children more and more these days. However, beyond the age of 30, the likelihood of a woman being infertile increases: women under the age of 30 have a 75% chance of falling pregnant successfully within a year, whereas women over 35 have a 66% chance.
Only 44% of those under the age of 40 are employed. As people become older, the amount and quality of egg cells decrease, increasing the risk of chromosomal damage, miscarriages, difficulties, and infertility. As a result, a woman should not put off having children for too long.
A hormonal imbalance is the cause of infertility in 30 to 40% of women who are afflicted. The following issues can lead to infertility if the female hormonal balance is disrupted:
- Insufficient or no eggs. Ovulation does not occur (anovulation)
- The uterine lining is not structured so that a fertilized egg may be implanted.
- The sperm cell finds it difficult to enter the cervical mucus (in the cervix) due to its consistency.
- Menstrual cycle problems induced by hormones can take many forms: the cycle might be extended (oligomenorrhea), shortened (polymenorrhea), or the menstrual period can stop entirely ( amenorrhea ).
Hormonal abnormalities that impact sex hormones, including estrogen, prolactin, gonadotropin, and the luteal hormone progesterone, are common causes of female infertility. Women who are significantly overweight ( obese ) have increased testosterone and estrogen levels in their blood. Similarly, being underweight might have a detrimental impact on fertility due to sex hormone imbalances.
The polycystic ovarian syndrome can sometimes be the cause of a woman's infertility ( PCO syndrome ). A benign tumor of the pituitary gland known as a prolactinoma can cause an increase in prolactin production in the brain, disrupting ovulation.
In addition to sex hormones, thyroid hormones are frequently responsible for infertility in women: an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) causes miscarriages (abortions). Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) causes a mismatch between the hormones prolactin and luteinizing hormone, disrupting ovulation.
In addition, female infertility is caused by a disruption in insulin metabolism in diabetes ( insulin is a blood sugar-lowering hormone).READ
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It's not uncommon for a hormonal issue to have a biological origin. Infertility can also be caused by a congenital abnormality, surgery, or a sickness. Women who have sticky, enlarged, or obstructed fallopian tubes, for example, have a difficult time conceiving. The following factors can induce organic causes:
- Inflammation is a term used to describe the state of (e.g., fallopian tube inflammation)
- Viruses and Infections (e.g. chlamydia )
- Adhesions following surgery
- Cysts in the ovaries
- Uterine tumor ( myoma )
- Cancers that produce hormones
Sterility of the immune system
Infertility can sometimes be attributed to the immune system. Women create antibodies against their egg cells or their partner's sperm cells in this scenario; the immune cells attach to the germ cells and stop them. It is then impossible to fertilize successfully.
Psyche, stress, or a sexually transmitted disease
Everything is often in order organically, yet the lady does not become pregnant. Because the mind plays such a crucial role in successful reproduction, it is critical to examine any internal conflicts more thoroughly in this situation. Fears, stress, tension, and extreme physical exertion may all alter the female hormone balance fast. Reproduction is also tricky when there are sexual problems in a couple's relationship.READ
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Genetic abnormalities can also cause infertility in women. These can cause issues with cell division, preventing a fertilized egg cell from developing further and implanting in the uterus. Turner syndrome, which affects people who only have one sex chromosome, also causes infertility in women.
Miscarriages on many occasions
Many women become pregnant yet have miscarriages regularly (abortions). This can be caused by uterine abnormalities, a child's chromosomal abnormality, infections, fibroids, or thyroid problems. However, much to the dismay of the ladies affected, the cause is not always apparent.
Infertility symptoms in women
Is it true that I'm sterile? Many women with an unmet wish to have children are tormented by this dilemma. If despite unprotected sexual intercourse, pregnancy does not develop within a year, the woman (and male) may be infertile. Other indicators that indicate a woman's infertility are difficult to notice in addition to undesired childlessness. Among the possibilities are:
- Excruciating intercourse
- Pelvic discomfort that persists
- Unbearable menstruation cramps (dysmenorrhea)
- Menstrual bleeding that is heavy and lasts a long time (hypermenorrhea)
- Deficiencies (endometriosis, fibroids)
- Slight bleed (hypomenorrhea)
- Bleeding between periods (metrorrhagia)
- Lots of hair (suggests too many male hormones; hirsutism )
- Fluid leakage from the chest ( galactorrhea )
However, only a thorough examination can tell whether there is genuine proof of female infertility.READ
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Female infertility diagnosis
Before a diagnosis of infertility can be made, many tests are usually required, which includes:
- Gynecological examination
- Ultrasound is a technology that uses sound waves to (sonography)
- Gynecological smear: cervical secretory condition (bracken test), bacteria
- Monitoring of the temperature curve at rest or during a cycle (to check ovulation)
- Estrogens, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), androgens (testosterone, DHEA-S), prolactin, progesterone, thyroid hormones, anti-Müllerian hormone are among the hormones tested.
- Hysterosalpingo contrast sonography, hysterosalpingography, endoscopy (hysteroscopy), or laparoscopy are all options for examining the fallopian tubes ( laparoscopy )
- Maybe a genetic analysis
Infertility in women: treatment
The following therapies are available depending on the diagnosis:
- Hormones stimulate the female ovaries.
- Inhibition or injection of particular hormones is known as hormone treatment (estrogen, prolactin, gonadotropin, progesterone)
- Cryopreservation of eggs
- Fallopian tube patency is the goal of this operation.
- In-vitro fertilization (IVF), intratubular gamete transfer (GIFT), and in-vitro maturation are all options for artificial insemination in cases of fallopian tube blockage, endometriosis, or immunological infertility (IVM)
It is common knowledge that it takes two to raise a child. As a result, treating one spouse for infertility is not usually sufficient. Even if the problem is with the man and everything on the female side is normal, women may be forced to undergo hormone stimulation or artificial insemination.